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Test ID: CMVP Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Antibodies, IgM and IgG, Serum

Reporting Name

Cytomegalovirus Ab, IgM and IgG, S

Useful For

Aiding in the diagnosis of acute or past infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV)

 

Determination of prior exposure to CMV

 

This test should not be used for screening blood or plasma donors.

Clinical Information

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family of viruses and usually causes asymptomatic infection after which it remains latent in patients, primarily within bone marrow derived cells. Primary CMV infection in immunocompetent individuals may manifest as a mononucleosis-type syndrome, similar to primary Epstein-Barr virus infection, with fever, malaise and lymphadenopathy.

 

CMV is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among bone marrow or solid organ transplant recipients, individuals with AIDS, and other immunosuppressed patients due to virus reactivation or from a newly acquired infection. Infection in these patient populations can affect almost any organ and lead to multiorgan failure. CMV is also responsible for congenital disease among newborns and is one of the TORCH infections (toxoplasmosis, other infections including syphilis, rubella, CMV, and herpes simplex virus).

 

CMV seroprevalence increases with age. In the United States, the prevalence of CMV-specific antibodies increases from approximately 36% to over 91% in children between 6 to 11 years of age and adults over 80 years old, respectively.

Interpretation

IgM:

A negative cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM result suggests that the patient is not experiencing acute or active infection. However, a negative result does not rule-out primary CMV infection.

 

It has been reported that CMV-specific IgM antibodies were not detectable in 10% to 30% of cord blood sera from infants demonstrating infection in the first week of life. In addition, up to 23% (3/13) of pregnant women with primary CMV infection did not demonstrate detectable CMV IgM responses within 8 weeks postinfection. In cases of primary infection where the time of seroconversion is not well defined as high as 28% (10/36) of pregnant women did not demonstrate CMV IgM antibody.

 

Positive CMV IgM results indicate a recent infection (primary, reactivation, or reinfection). IgM antibody responses in secondary (reactivation) CMV infections have been demonstrated in some CMV mononucleosis patients, in a few pregnant women, and in renal and cardiac transplant patients. Levels of antibody may be lower in transplant patients with secondary rather than primary infections.

 

IgG:

Positive CMV IgG results indicate past or recent CMV infection. These individuals may transmit CMV to susceptible individuals through blood and tissue products.

 

Individuals with negative CMV IgG results are presumed to not have had prior exposure or infection with CMV and are, therefore, considered susceptible to primary infection.

 

Equivocal CMV IgM or IgG results may occur during acute infection or may be due to nonspecific binding reactions. Submit an additional sample for testing if clinically indicated.

Report Available

Same day/1 to 3 days

Day(s) Performed

Monday through Saturday

Clinical Reference

1. Soderberg-Naucler C, Fish NK, Nelson JA: Reactivation of latent human cytomegalovirus by allogeneic stimulation of blood cells from healthy donors. Cell. 1997 Oct 3;91(1):119-126

2. Bruminhent J, Thongprayoon C, Dierkhising RA, Kremers WK, Theel ES, Razonable RR: Risk factors for cytomegalovirus reactivation after liver transplantation: can pre-transplant cytomegalovirus antibody titers predict outcome? Liver Transpl. 2015;21(4):539-546

3. Dioverti MV, Razonable RR: Cytomegalovirus. Microbiol Spectr. 2016;4(4)

4. Staras SA, Dollard SC, Radford KW, Flanders WD, Pass RF, Cannon MJ: Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in the United States, 1998-1994. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43(9):1143

Method Name

Multiplex Flow Immunoassay (MFI)

Specimen Type

Serum


Specimen Required


Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Aliquot tube

Specimen Volume: 1 mL


Specimen Minimum Volume

0.8 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
  Frozen  14 days

Reference Values

CYTOMEGALOVIRUS IgM:

Negative

 

CYTOMEGALOVIRUS IgG:

Negative

 

Reference values apply to all ages.

Test Classification

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information

86644-CMV, IgG

86645-CMV, IgM

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CMVP Cytomegalovirus Ab, IgM and IgG, S 87424-8

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
CMVG Cytomegalovirus Ab, IgG, S 13949-3
CMVM Cytomegalovirus Ab, IgM, S 24119-0

Profile Information

Test ID Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CMVM Cytomegalovirus Ab, IgM, S Yes Yes
CMVG Cytomegalovirus Ab, IgG, S Yes Yes

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send Infectious Disease Serology Test Request (T916) with the specimen.

Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Microbiology and Infectious Disease Catalog Additional Information:

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