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Test ID: CHIKV Chikungunya IgM and IgG, Antibody, Serum

Useful For

Aiding in the diagnosis of recent infection with Chikungunya virus in patients with recent travel to endemic areas and a compatible clinical syndrome

Profile Information

Test ID Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CHIKM Chikungunya IgM, Ab, S No Yes
CHIKG Chikungunya IgG, Ab, S No Yes
CHIKI Chikungunya Interpretation No Yes

Method Name

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

Reporting Name

Chikungunya IgM and IgG, Ab, S

Specimen Type

Serum


Ordering Guidance


Testing a patient in a convalescent period is recommended because specimens collected too early following infection may be negative for antibodies to Chikungunya virus.



Specimen Required


Collection Container/Tube: 

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL


Specimen Minimum Volume

0.4 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 30 days
  Frozen  30 days

Clinical Information

Chikungunya virus (ChikV) is a single-stranded RNA alphavirus and a member of the Togaviridae family of viruses. The name Chikungunya is derived from the language of the Makonde ethnic groups in southeast Africa and means "that which bends" or "stooped walk." This is in reference to the hunched-over appearance of infected individuals due to the characteristically painful and incapacitating arthralgia caused by the virus. ChikV is endemic throughout Africa, India, and more recently the Caribbean islands. In 2014, the first case of autochthonous or local transmission in the United States occurred in Florida.

 

Humans are the primary reservoir for ChikV and Aedes species mosquitos are the primary vectors for transmission. Unlike other mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue, the majority of individuals who are exposed to ChikV become symptomatic, with the most severe manifestations observed at the extremes of age and in those with suppressed immunity. Once exposed to ChikV, individuals develop lasting immunity and protection from reinfection.

 

Prior to development of symptoms, the incubation period ranges, on average, from 3 to 7 days. Infected patients typically present with sudden onset high fever, incapacitating joint pain, and often a maculopapular rash lasting anywhere from 3 to 10 days. Notably, symptom relapse can occur in some individuals 2 to 3 months following resolution of initial symptoms. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines and treatment is strictly supportive care.

Reference Values

IgM: Negative

IgG: Negative

Reference values apply to all ages.

Interpretation

IgM and IgG Negative:

-No serologic evidence of exposure to Chikungunya virus. Repeat testing on a new specimen collected in 5 to 10 days is recommended if clinical suspicion persists.

 

IgM and IgG Positive:

-IgM and IgG antibodies to Chikungunya virus detected, suggesting recent or past infection. IgM antibodies to Chikungunya virus may remain detectable for 3 to 4 months post-infection.

 

IgM Positive, IgG Negative:

-IgM antibodies to Chikungunya virus detected, suggesting recent infection. Repeat testing in 5 to 10 days is recommended to demonstrate anti-Chikungunya virus IgG seroconversion to confirm current infection.

 

IgM Negative, IgG Positive:

-IgG antibodies to Chikungunya virus detected, suggesting past infection.

 

IgM and/or IgG Borderline:

-Repeat testing in 10 to 14 days is recommended.

Clinical Reference

Pan American Health Organization. Preparedness and Response for Chikungunya virus. Introduction into the Americas. PAHO 2011

Day(s) Performed

Bimonthly on the second and forth Wednesday

Report Available

Same day/1 to 7 days

Test Classification

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

IgM: 86790

IgG: 86790

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CHIKV Chikungunya IgM and IgG, Ab, S 93976-9

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
CHIKI Chikungunya Interpretation 69048-7
CHIKG Chikungunya IgG, Ab, S 88630-9
CHIKM Chikungunya IgM, Ab, S 88629-1

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send Infectious Disease Serology Test Request (T916) with the specimen.

Testing Algorithm

See Mosquito-borne Disease Laboratory Testing in Special Instructions.

Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Microbiology and Infectious Disease Catalog Additional Information:

mml-mosquitoborne