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Test ID: BILHA Schistosoma species Antibody, IgG, Serum

Useful For

Detection of antibodies to Schistosoma species

Method Name

Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)

Reporting Name

Schistosoma Ab, IgG, S

Specimen Type


Specimen Required

Specimen Required

Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 1 mL

Collection Instructions: Centrifuge and aliquot serum into plastic vial.

Specimen Minimum Volume

0.5 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 30 days
  Frozen  30 days

Clinical Information

Schistosoma species (class Trematoda) are flukes, characterized by their flat, leaf-like morphology as adults and use of gastropod mollusks (eg, snails) as an intermediate host. The schistosomes are also referred to as the "blood flukes" of which there are 5 species known to infect humans: Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mekongi, and Schistosoma intercalatum. Among these S mansoni, S japonicum and S haematobium are most common.


These species have a defined geographic distribution, with S mansoni occurring throughout sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and islands in the Caribbean; S haematobium found in much of the African continent and the Middle East; and S japonicum localized to China, Indonesia, and the Philippines.


Humans are definitive hosts for all Schistosoma species except for S japonicum, and infection begins with skin penetration of cercariae in contaminated water sources. The cercariae shed their bifurcated tails, becoming schistosomulae and migrate through the vascular system to the lungs, heart, and the portal venous system in the liver. There they mature to adults, pair off and migrate to the mesenteric venules of the bowel and rectum (S mansoni, S japonicum) or venus plexus of the bladder (S haematobium). Females will shed eggs, which are moved progressively towards the lumen of the intestine (S mansoni, S japonicum) and bladder (S haematobium) and are eliminated in the feces or urine, respectively. These eggs will hatch under ideal conditions, releasing miracidia, which penetrate specific snail (mollusk) intermediate hosts and develop into cercariae, continuing the life cycle.


While many infections are asymptomatic, acute schistosomiasis (Katayama fever), due to S mansoni or S japonicum, may occur weeks after initial infection. Symptoms include fever, cough, abdominal pain, diarrhea, hepatosplenomegaly, and eosinophilia. Central nervous system infection is uncommon; however, cerebral granulomatous disease may be caused by migration of Schistosoma eggs into the brain or spinal cord. Cystitis and ureteritis with hematuria are associated with S haematobium infection and can progress to bladder cancer.


Diagnosis of schistosomiasis can be made by detection of eggs in fecal or urine samples as appropriate for each species. Antibody detection can be useful for patients who reside in nonendemic areas but have recently traveled to regions where Schistosoma species are found and in whom eggs cannot be identified in fecal or urine examinations.

Reference Values



Negative: No IgG antibodies to Schistosoma species detected.


Equivocal: Recommend follow-up testing in 10 to 14 days if clinically indicated.


Positive: IgG antibody to Schistosoma species detected. Differentiation between Schistosoma species is not possible by this assay. Serologic cross-reactivity may occur in individuals with other helminth infections, including Echinococcus or Taenia species.

Clinical Reference

1. Weerakoon KG, Gobert GN, Cai P, McManus DP: Advances in the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015 Oct;28(4):939-967

2. McManus DP, Dunne DW, Sacko M, Utzinger J, Vennervald BJ, Zhou XN: Schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018 Aug;4(1):13

Day(s) Performed

Tuesday, Thursday

Report Available

Same day/1 to 5 days

Test Classification

This test has been modified from the manufacturer's instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information


LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
BILHA Schistosoma Ab, IgG, S 33317-9


Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
BILHA Schistosoma Ab, IgG, S 33317-9


If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send Infectious Disease Serology Test Request (T916) with the specimen.

Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Microbiology and Infectious Disease Catalog Additional Information: